United Kingdom Law

Common Law approach:
Hohfeldian privilege rather than a right i.e.: so long as it does not interfere with anyone else’s right.

Public Order Act of 1986:
Establishes a structure to which citizens can apply to demonstrate. Second it enacts offences to deal with different degrees of disorderly conduct. Public place. Processions. Specific conditions. Cawley v Frost 1976 All ER: public place includes speedway track.

Banning Procession.
Public Assemblies. Public Order offences: violence, riot, violent disorder, affray, fear of provocation of violence: Brutus v Cozens 1972 All ER: insulting, threatening, abusive. Harassment, alarm or distress.

Common law breach of the peace:
constables have this power. Leader of assembly can be arrested for refusing to move meeting. Police officer has a duty to intervene. Case references included.

Public Order Act of 1986:
Incitement to racial hatred: §17 stir up - behavior/words. §18: publication incl speeches. §23: an offense to possess racist material, if the material is intended to be published.

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