Hirabayashi v. The United States,  No. 870 Supreme Court of The United States 320 U.S. 81; 63 S. Ct. 1375; 1943 U.S. 

June 21, 1943, Decided

RESPONSE to questions certified by the Circuit Court of Appeals upon an appeal to that court from a conviction in the District Court upon two counts of an indictment charging violations of orders promulgated by the military commander of the Western Defense Command. This Court directed that the entire record be certified so that the case could be determined as if brought here by appeal. See 46 F.Supp. 657.


CORE TERMS: military, curfew, commander, ancestry, sabotage, espionage, invasion, designated, alien, proclamation, parte, regulation, zone, enemy, Fifth Amendment, prescribed, promulgated, delegation, air, loyalty, sentence, residing, CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, coast, effective, indictment, citizenship, promulgation, emergency, classification

JUDGES: Stone, Roberts, Black, Reed, Frankfurter, Douglas, Murphy, Jackson, Rutledge

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