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Equality (Art. 9)

  1. Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law.
  2. Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms. To promote the achievement of equality, legislative and other measures designed to protect or advance persons, or categories of persons, disadvantaged by unfair discrimination may be taken.
  3. The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, color, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth.
  4. No person may unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds in terms of subsection (3). National legislation must be enacted to prevent or prohibit unfair discrimination.
  5. Discrimination on one or more of the grounds listed in subsection (3) is unfair unless it is established that the discrimination is fair.

Download all cases in one MS Word file (149 pages, 570kb)

Jump to cases for Canada, European Court, European Union, France, Germany, India, United States, United Kingdom.

Canada
Canadian Equality Rights Law

European Court of Human Rights

Article 14 of the European Convention on Human rights

European Union


France
Article 6 of the Declaration of 1789


Germany
Basic German Equality Laws


India
Economic Criterion Test, the limits of reservation


United States
1787 Constitution, Amendment XIV

United Kingdom


Wuerzburg University Key System

Comparative constitutional law links for Equality

Human and Constitutional Rights Resource Page


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