United States v Mazuire 419 US 544 1975: Indian tribes are unique aggregations possessing attributes over both their members and territory.

Respondents convicted of introducing spirituous beverages into Indian reserves in violation of liquor license ordinance adopted by the tribe. The court has recognized limits on the authority of Congress to delegate its legislative power. The limitations are less stringent in cases where the entity exercising the delegated authority itself possesses independent authority over the subject matter. Indian tribes are unique aggregations possessing attributes over both their members and territory. They are a great deal more than private voluntary organizations. The independent tribal authority is quite sufficient to protect Congress's decision to vest in tribal councils this portion of its own authority to regulate commerce with the Indian tribes. The fact that because the respondents were non-Indians Congress. does not mean they are not subject to the authority of the tribal council in respect of the sale of liquor. They transacted with Indians on a reserve.

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