Group-Oriented Rights
"Other Generations" of Rights
  Healthful Environment, Right to a Development, Right to Peace, Right to
Constitutions
  South African Constitution §24 suggests that environmental rights are held only by individuals    
French 1958 Constitution (no provision) 1946 Constitution Preamble ¶10 (right to conditions necessary for personal and family development) (no provision)
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (no provision) (no provision) (no provision)
Constitution of Argentina Art. 41 seems to create both a right of individuals and of communities to a healthy environment.  Added by the 1994 Amendments. There is no explicit provision, but see Art. 75(19), ¶1 (authorizing Congress to take any action conducive to human development, economic progress with social justice, etc.). (no provision)
United States Constitution (no provision) (no provision) (no provision)
Constitution of India Under Art. 48A, the State must "protect and improve the environment."  This duty cannot be enforced by the courts.  Art. 37. Under Art. 38(1), the State must "strive to promote the welfare of the people" by promoting social, economic, and political justice. See also Art. 48 (modernization of animal husbandry).  These duties cannot be enforced by the courts.  Art. 37. (no provision)
Würzburg Key System (Key has not yet been developed) (Key has not yet been developed) (Key has not yet been developed)
International Instruments
  Universal Declaration of Human Rights (no provision) No explicit provision, but see Art. 22 (the right of each member of society to enjoy economic and social rights indispensable for the "free development of his personality.") (no provision)
Int’l Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (no provision) (no provision) (no provision)

Human and Constitutional Rights Resource Page
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