Rights of Individuals: Civil and Political
Rights of Political Participation
  Right of Political Participation, Electoral Rights Free and Fair Elections, Right to
Constitutions
  South African Constitution §19 (including the right to form or participate in activites of political parties; the right to free, fair, and regular elections for legislative bodies; and the rights to vote and to stand for public office) §19(2), see also Ch. 9 §§190-191, establishing an Electoral Commission to protect this right.
French 1958 Constitution Art. 3 (right of all adults of either sex to vote as provided by statute; universal, equal, and secret voting; statutes shall ("La loi favorise") promote equal access by men and women to elective office), Art. 4 (freedom of activities of political parties, subject to the principles of sovereignty and democracy). (no provision)
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms §3 (every citizen has "the right to vote in an election of members of the House of Commons or of a legislative assembly and to be qualified for membership therein.")  See also §4, requiring elections at least every 5 years for all federal and provincial legislatures, except in emergencies. (no provision)
Constitution of Argentina Art. 37 (the full exercise of political rights, and voting must be universal, equal, and secret). See also Art. 38 (freedom of creation and action of political parties); Art. 39 (a limited right for all citizens to initiate bills in Congress).  These Articles were added by the 1994 Amendments. No direct provision, but see Art. 37, ¶1, referring to the principle of popular sovereignty [con arreglo al principio de la soberania popular], and Art. 36 ¶4, establishing a right of all citizens to resist forcible disruptions of the constitutional or democratic order.  This Article was added by the 1994 Amendments.
United States Constitution The right to vote is protected generally by the 14th Amend. §1 equal protection clause, and in specific situations by the 15th Amend. ("race, color, or previous condition of servitude").  It may be overcome by an important governmental interest.  There is no provision specifically upholding a right to stand for public office. See Rotunda, §§18.31-33, see also Amendments 19 (women’s suffrage), 24 (poll taxes), and 26. No provision, but case law has required certain procedural standards for elections in order to uphold the 1st Amend. right to free speech.  The political question doctrine may limit the scope of judicial review of electoral procedures.  E.g. O’Brien v. Brown, 409 U.S. 1 (1972).
Constitution of India There are numerous provisions, throughout the text of the Constitution, including those relating to election of the President, local village committees (Panchayats), and detailed rules for elections, eligibility for public service, etc. Due to the extremely large size of the Constitution, these provisions are beyond the scope of this research project. See comment at left.
Würzburg Key System Key 6271 (Key has not yet been developed)
International Instruments
  Universal Declaration of Human Rights Art. 21(1)-(2) (right to take part in public service, and in government directly or through representatives) Art. 21(3) (periodic and genuine, by universal and equal suffrage, and by secret or equivalent voting procedures)
Int’l Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR Art. 25 (same content as Universal Declaration) ICCPR Art. 25 (right to vote and to be elected at elections satisfying essentially the same criteria as in the Universal Declaration)

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